, After her affair with her lover and adviser Grigori Alexandrovich Potemkin ended in 1776, he allegedly selected a candidate-lover for her who had the physical beauty and mental faculties to hold her interest (such as Alexander Dmitriev-Mamonov and Nicholas Alexander Suk). It was instituted by the Fundamental Law of 7 November 1775. , Peter the Great had succeeded in gaining a toehold in the south, on the edge of the Black Sea, in the Azov campaigns. This was another attempt to organise and passively control the outer fringes of her country. He received a palace in Saint Petersburg when Catherine became empress. The peace lasted for 14 years.  In 1764, she sent for Dumaresq to come to Russia and then appointed him to the educational commission. Denmark declared war on Sweden in 1788 (the Theatre War). Empress Elizabeth knew the family well: She had intended to marry Princess Johanna's brother Charles Augustus (Karl August von Holstein), but he died of smallpox in 1727 before the wedding could take place. Inspired by the Byzantine Empire design, the crown was constructed of two half spheres, one gold and one silver, representing the eastern and western Roman empires, divided by a foliate garland and fastened with a low hoop. Catherine separated the Jews from Orthodox society, restricting them to the Pale of Settlement. War broke out again in 1773, but the Turks only met with further disasters. Catherine kept her illegitimate son by Grigori Orlov (Alexis Bobrinsky, later elevated to Count Bobrinsky by Paul I) near Tula, away from her court. N. Hans, "Dumaresq, Brown and Some Early Educational Projects of Catherine II", Alan W. Fisher, "Enlightened despotism and Islam under Catherine II. In 1785, Catherine declared Jews to be officially foreigners, with foreigners' rights. Journal of Modern Russian History and Historiography, USA. She was born the German Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst on May 2, 1729 to Prince Christian and Princess Johanna. Russia joined the European Holy League (Austria, Poland, Venice) in 1686.: 14 During the war, the Russian army organized the Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 and the Azov campaigns (1695–96). Others represented the Viazemskii and Trubetskoi families. Having stalled the Hapsburgs, the Ottomans were to gain a new foe in Russia, which had developed into a major power under Peter the Great and then, under Empress Elizabeth, had played an important part in the Seven Years War. They indeed helped modernise the sector that totally dominated the Russian economy.  The understanding of law in imperial Russia by all sections of society was often weak, confused, or nonexistent, particularly in the provinces where most serfs lived. In 1757, Poniatowski served in the British Army during the Seven Years' War, thus severing close relationships with Catherine. The marriage was an unhappy one and on her arrival in Russia, Catherine suffered from a form of pleurisy, which causes sharp pains in the chest. Catherine waged a new war against Persia in 1796 after they, under the new king Agha Mohammad Khan, had again invaded Georgia and established rule in 1795 and had expelled the newly established Russian garrisons in the Caucasus.  She especially liked the work of German comic writers such as Moritz August von Thümmel and Christoph Friedrich Nicolai. This was one of the chief reasons behind rebellions, including the large-scale Pugachev Rebellion of Cossacks, nomads, peoples of Volga and peasants. 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